ITV’s Regional Pattern

London: The ITA’s transmitter at Croydon was opened on 22nd September 1955. It serves a population of 13 million in and around London. Programmes are provided by Associated-Rediffusion Ltd. (A-R) from Mondays to Fridays and by Associated TeleVision Ltd. (ATV) on Saturdays and Sundays.

The Midlands: The ITA’s transmitter at Lichfield was opened on 17th February 1956. It serves a population of 8¾ million. Programmes are provided by Associated TeleVision Ltd. (ATV) from Mondays to Fridays and by ABC Television Ltd. on Saturdays and Sundays.

The North: A population of 12½ million in Lancashire and Yorkshire is served by the ITA’s transmitters at Winter Hill and Emley Moor, opened in 1956. Programmes are provided by Granada TV Network Ltd. from Mondays to Fridays and by ABC Television Ltd. on Saturdays and Sundays. ITA Regional Officer: S. D. Murphy, Astley House, Quay Street, Manchester 3. Manchester Blackfriars 2707.

Scotland: THE ITA SCOTTISH COMMITTEE: Professor David Talbot Rice, M.B.E. (Chairman); Mr. Frank Donachy, O.B.E. 3 Mr. ]ohh Fergus, F.I.P.A.; The Rev. Arthur H. Gray; Dr. H. Stewart Mackintosh, C.B.E.; Sir William MacTaggart, P.R.S.A.; Mrs. T. N. Morgan; Miss Barbara L. Napier, J.P.; The Rev. Dr. W. A. Smellie.

Scotland is served by five of the ITA’s transmitters. A population of 4 million in Central Scotland is reached by the Black Hill station opened in 1957, the first after the three main areas had been covered. Programmes are provided by Scottish Television Ltd. (STV). North-East Scotland, with a population of 1.4 million, is served by the transmitters at Durris and Mounteagle, opened in 1961. Programmes are provided by Grampian Television Ltd. The southern borders of Scotland are served by the Caldbeck and Selkirk transmitters with programmes provided by Border Television Ltd. ITA Regional Officer for Scotland: John Lindsay, 147 West Regent Street, Glasgow C.2. Glasgow City 3130. (The Regional Officer for North-East England deals with the Border area.)

Wales and the West of England: THE ITA WELSH COMMITTEE: Mr. Jenkin Alban Davies, J.P. (Chairman); Dr. Ivor Davies; Miss Norah Isaac; Mrs. Enid Watkin ]ones; Mr. Thomas Ieuan Jeffrys Jones, M.A.; Major General Lewis Owain Pugh; Mr. Leslie Richards; The Rev. D. R. Thomas, M.A.

Two companies, TWW Ltd. and Wales (West & North) Ltd. (WWN), provide programmes for the Authority to broadcast to Welsh viewers. In addition to its responsibilities in South Wales, TWW also covers a wide area in the West of England; it provides programmes for the ITA’s transmitter at St. Hilary, opened in 1958, serving a population of 3.3 million. The technical difficulties of the area covered by Wales (West & North) Ltd. are indicated by the fact that three transmitters are needed in South-West, North-West and North-East Wales to broadcast its programmes to a population of about 1 million. These transmitters opened during 1962-63. ITA Regional Officer: L. J. Evans, Arlbee House, Greyfriars Place, Greyfriars Road, Cardiff. Cardiff 28759.

Southern England: Southern Television Ltd. provides programmes for Southern England from Kent to Dorset, an area which is not easily defined geographically or technically. The ITA’s transmitters at Chillerton Down on the Isle of Wight (opened in 1958) and at Dover (opened in 196O) serve a population of 4.3 million. ITA Regional Officer: Cmdr. G. W. Alcock, O.B.E., R.N. (Rtd.), 3o Portland Street, Southampton. Southampton 29115.

North-East England and Border Regions: The North-East of England, with programmes provided by Tyne Tees Television Ltd., is geographically, technically and socially well defined, consisting basically of the main part of the counties of Northumberland, Durham and the North Riding of Yorkshire. A population of 2.7 million is served from the ITAs transmitter at Burnhope, opened in 1959. Border Television Ltd. serves two nationalities as its area straddles the Anglo-Scottish border, its programmes being broadcast by one transmitter at Caldbeck and another at Selkirk in Scotland (opened 1961) to a population of nearly half a million. ITA Regional Officer: R. J. F. Larimer 32-4 Mosley Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Newcastle 61-0148.

East Anglia: This was the first predominantly rural area in which the Independent Television Authority appointed a programme contractor, Anglia Television Ltd. This area is again both historically and geographically well defined. The topography of the area necessitated the first 1,000 ft. mast erected for the Authority, to serve a population of 2½ million. Programme operation commenced in 1959. ITA Regional Officer: Major General D. A. L. Wade, C.B., O.B.E., M.C., Century Insurance Building, 24 Castle Meadow, Norwich. Norwich 23533.

Northern Ireland: THE ITA ULSTER COMMITTEE: Sir Lucius O’Brien (Chairman); Mr. John G. Colhoun; Rev. Dr. C. B. Daly; Mr. G. B. Newe, O.B.E.; Mrs. G. Seth; Professor C. L. Wilson; The Rev. J. H. Withers.

The Province of Northern Ireland is served by two transmitters. The major one near the principal centre of population, the Belfast area, opened in 1959. The second, at Strabane in the west of the Province, opened early in 1963. Programmes are provided by Ulster Television Ltd. The population served is 1.4 million. ITA Regional Officer: W. H. Wilson, 5 Donegall Square South, Belfast. Belfast 3o818.

South-West England and the Channel Islands: Another geographically well-defined area is the South-West of England, consisting of the peninsula of Cornwall, Devon and parts of Somerset and Dorset. Westward Television Ltd. serves a population of 1.6 million from the ITA’s transmitters at Caradon Hill and Stockland Hill (opened in 1961). Programmes for the Channel Islands are provided by the smallest of all the fifteen ITV programme companies, Channel Television Ltd. Programme operation commenced during 1962. ITA Regional Officer: W. A. C. Collingwood, O.B.E., Royal London House, Armada Way, Plymouth. Plymouth 63031.

ABC Television

Midlands and North (Saturdays and Sundays)

ABC Television's Teddington Studios
ABC Television’s Teddington Studios

ABC is the company which, under agreement with the Independent Television Authority, provides the television programmes in the North and Midlands on Saturdays and Sundays.

comp-abc1 Hanover Square, London W.1.
HYDe Park 7222
City Centre House, 30 Union Street, Birmingham 2
Television House, 12 Mount Street, Manchester 2

Area         ITA      Channel   Vision    Sound    Opening Date  Population ITA Homes
          Transmitter          Frequency Frequency                  000's     000's
                                 Mc/s      Mc/s

Midlands  Lichfield       8     189.75    186.25   17th Feb 1956     8,850    1,765

North     Winter Hill     9     194.75    181.25    3rd May 1956  }
          Emley Moor     10     199.7372  196.2605  3rd Nov 1956  } 12,452    3,282

Sir Philip Warter (Chairman); E G M Fletcher LL.D, MP (Deputy Chairman); Howard Thomas (Managing Director); C J Latta; R Clark, LL.B; D J Goodlatte; G A Cooper.


C J Orr, FCA (Secretary); B R Greenhead (Technical Controller); R H Norris (Advertisement Controller); B Tesler (Programme Controller); D Southwood (Northern Executive and Chief of Outside Broadcasts); E G Harris (Midlands Executive); L Shirley (Features Supervisor); R Taylor (Light Entertainment Supervisor); Penry Jones (Religious Adviser).


Total members of staff 957 (excluding Alpha Television).

Visits to Studios

A limited number of tickets are available for audiences at certain shows. Applications, enclosing stamped addressed envelopes, should be made to the Ticket Controller at the address of the studio from which the programme originates. The minimum age is sixteen.


Enquiries about artistes and programmes should be addressed to Viewers’ Correspondence, ABC Television, Broom Road, Teddington, Middlesex.

Submission of Scripts

Present requirements are for 60-minute plays, 30-minute children’s serials and 60- or 45-minute series scripts. But programmes change, and authors should contact story editors for the appropriate category to learn of future trends before submitting outlines or scripts.

Programme Journal

TV Times publishes separate editions for the North and Midlands areas giving details of the available programmes.


DIDSBURY STUDIO CENTRE, Manchester (Didsbury 8181). Winter Hill and Emley Moor transmitters receive their weekend programmes via the ABC master control rooms at Didsbury. Here too is based the Outside Broadcast fleet. The main studio has a stage area of 5,000 sq. ft. and has seating for an audience of 600. The second studio has an area of approximately 1,000 sq. ft., and there is a presentation studio attached to the dual master control rooms, plus an announcer’s booth for sound only.

BIRMINGHAM. Alpha Television Studios, Aston, Birmingham (Aston Cross 3091), are jointly owned by ABC and Associated TeleVision Limited. There are three studios of 3,000, 1,200 and 380 sq. ft., and master control and technical areas which were housed in a new building during 1962.

TEDDINGTON STUDIO CENTRE, Broom Road, Teddington (Teddington Lock 3252). This modern studio centre has been established close to London, where the main body of artistes is available. It specialises in the recording of drama, light entertainment and feature programmes. Studio 1 has an area of 7,500 sq. ft.; Studio 2, 4,750 sq. ft.; and Studio 3, 2,500 sq. ft. The technical equipment covers an area of 8,000 sq. ft. and is fully multi-standard with immediate switching between 405, 525 and 625 line standards. The new central block, opened in 1962, has in addition 13,000 sq. ft. of rehearsal rooms, an acoustically treated recording studio of 1,700 sq. ft., and scenery assembly and handling facilities.

Outside Broadcast Units

ABC have three Outside Broadcast units based at Didsbury, all with 4½” cameras and a smaller vidicon unit. In addition, the mobile videotape recorder can be equipped with one or two cameras, there being a total of twelve available between the units, There are seven microwave link units with portable power generators, and a hydraulic platform tower truck.

Videotape Recording

There are two machines based at Didsbury, together with the mobile unit. At Teddington there are four standards-switchable transistorised recorders together with standards converter equipment. At Alpha Studios, Birmingham, there are two machines.

Colour Television

One of the flying spot telecine channels at Teddington is equipped for the generation of colour signals, and programmes from Teddington have been experimentally radiated by the Croydon transmitter. In addition, numerous public demonstrations have been given over the GPO network, notably those using the continental SECAM system.

Technical Developments

A considerable amount of apparatus was specially developed for the Teddington Studio Centre in order to achieve full multi-standard operation. All this newly developed equipment is transistorised, and, in particular, vision switching matrices and pulse and vision distribution amplifiers have been used in considerable numbers.


ABC productions include: News and News Magazines: ABC At Large. Talks, Discussions and Documentaries: The Other Man’s Farm, The Bookman. The Arts: Tempo. Science and Natural History: You’d Never Believe It! Religion: The Sunday Break, Living Your Life, Journey of a Lifetime, Sunday Morning Service, Epilogues. Adult Education: Headway. Sport: extensive outside broadcast coverage of all sporting events, including such minority sports as tenpin bowling, motor cycle scrambles, indoor soccer and amateur boxing. Children’s Programmes: Once Upon A Time. Drama Programmes: Armchair Theatre, The Avengers, Dimension of Fear (four-part thriller serial), Secret Beneath the Sea (six-part children’s serial), Ocean Liner series (untitled). Variety, Light Entertainment and Music: Thank Your Lucky Stars, Sing Along, The Best of Friends, Comedy Bandbox, Candid Camera, The Dave King Show, Life and Al Read. Entertainment Films: several film series produced in collaboration with ABC include The Human Jungle, Sir Francis Drake. Dramatised Documentaries: The Sword in the Web.

Granada TV Network

The North (Mondays to Fridays)

itv1963part3 15

Granada TV Network Limited is the company which, under agreement with the Independent Television Authority, provides the television programmes in the North of England from Monday to Friday.


Granada TV Centre, Quay Street, Manchester 3.
36 Golden Square, London W.1.
REGent 8080

    ITA    Channel   Vision     Sound    Opening Date   Population ITA Homes
Transmitter        Frequency  Frequency                    000's      000's
                      Mc/s       Mc/s
Winter Hill     9    194.75     191.25     3rd May 1956   }
                                                          } 12,452     3,282
Emley Moor     10    199.7372   196.2605   3rd Nov 1956   }

Sidney L Bernstein*; Cecil G Bernstein*; Denis Forman*; Maurice King; Victor Peers*; John Todd; Joseph Warton*; Richard Willder.
* Executive Directors


Alex Anson (Sales and Advertising); Sir Gerald Barry (Schools and Education); Patrick Crookshank (Overseas Sales); RH Hammans (Director of Engineering); William Nugent (Chief Engineer).

Programme Committee

The Executive Directors and Harry Elton, Tim Hewat, Philip Mackie. Secretary: Kenneth Brierley.

Art and Science

Granada has endowed a Television Research Fellowship at Leeds University, a chair of Drama at Manchester University, a Chair of Communication at Keele University, and an Annual Arts Fellowship at the University of York. The Company has also made grants to repertory theatres in the North.

The Granada Guildhall Lectures

Each year Granada, with the British Association for the Advancement of Science, arranges a series of three lectures on the subject of Communication in the Modern World, with international speakers lecturing in London’s Guildhall. Television versions of the lectures are transmitted.


Granada has commissioned special audience research surveys – Granada Viewership Surveys (three editions) and What Children Watch.


Granada has interests in television stations in Canada and Nigeria.

Programme Journal

TV Times publishes a special edition for the North of England giving details of the available programmes.


THE TV CENTRE, MANCHESTER 3. Deansgate 7211. Granada’s five-acre site is an important feature on Manchester’s city development, on the City Centre ring road, near the new Courts of Justice and Government offices. In 1956, when Phase I of the TV Centre was completed, it was the first building in Britain originally designed for television. Today Phase V of the TV Centre development plan has been finished. There are six studios, floor-space totalling 23,860 sq. ft. Granada also has an audience studio at Chelsea, London.

Outside Broadcasts

Granada has 16 outside broadcast vehicles, including mobile Ampex videotape recording units.

Videotape Recording

Granada has ten Ampex videotape machines at the TV Centre, in its mobile videotape recording vehicle and at its London studios. The TV Centre has a 16-mm. Dubbing Suite for putting sound on film.

Technical Developments

Granada was the first to use a standards conversion unit to “translate” videotape recordings from European to United States line standards. In 1958 the Granada unit converted Eurovision pictures of the Coronation of Pope John to the American System, so that videotape recordings could be flown to New York for immediate transmission. Granada uses mobile videotape equipment for covering news events and recording inserts for programmes. All television facilities at the Manchester TV Centre have been planned, designed and commissioned solely by Granada Planning Engineers. The recently-completed Studio 12 is one of the most up-to-date television studios in the country. The vision mixer system, designed for the most complex operations, is controlled by one third of the buttons and switches normally needed. Half the vision is transistorised and incorporates equipment designed by Granada Design and Development. Granada studios have developed a unique system of lighting grids.


Granada programmes include: News and News Magazines: Northern Newscast, Scene at 6.30, a daily news magazine. Talks, Discussions, Current Affairs: What the Papers Say, I Believe…, Appointment With…, election and political party conference coverage, World in Action – special reports from Granada units overseas. Past programmes have covered South Africa, India, Cuba, France and Britain. Natural History: Breakthrough, Animal Parade, Another World, A to Zoo. Schools (for sixth-formers): Discovery, Inquiry, Design, The Art of Music, Art in the Making, Patterns of Power, Word and Image. Plays and Drama Series: regular contributions to the Play of the Week and Television Playhouse series, including works of Jean Anouilh, Elizabeth Baker, Alexander Baron, Harold Brighouse, Friedrich Duerrenmatt, Clive Exton, Lillian Hellman, Stanley Houghton, Donald Howarth, Carson McCullers, Arthur Miller, Allan Monkhouse, Peter Nichols, JB Priestley, William Saroyan, Bernard Shaw, Thornton Wilder; Younger Generation series, 11 plays by new writers, performed by a repertory group of actors; the Saki series, dramatised short stories by HH Munro; de Maupassant dramatised short story series; The Victorians, plays by Victorian writers; The Verdict is Yours; Coronation Street. Light Entertainment: West End, Chelsea at Nine, Bootsie and Snudge. Music: Rosalyn Tureck playing the Bach preludes and fugues; recitals by Oistrakh, Rostropovich, the Borodin String Quartet; concerts by the New York Philharmonic Orchestra; Orpheus in the Underworld, by Sadler’s Wells Opera Company; Cinderella by the Royal Ballet Company; Josh White Sings.

The North


  • Population within measured contours: Primary 6.43 mn, Secondary 0.53 mn, Fringe 0.63 mn. Total 7.59 mn.
  • Channel: Band III Channel 9 (vertically polarised)
  • Vision Carrier Frequency: Actual 194.75 Mc/s
  • Sound Carrier Frequency: Actual 191.25 Mc/s
  • Effective Radiated Power: Vision 100 kw. Sound 25 kw.
  • Power of Transmitters: Vision (peak white) 10 kW. Sound (carrier) 2½ kW
  • Heights above sea level: Site 1450 ft. Mean aerial 1,850 ft.
  • Location: 2° 30′ 55″ W, 53° 37′ 35″ N.
  • Population within measured contours: Primary 3.36 mn, Secondary 0.995 mn, Fringe 0.555 mn. Total 4.91 mn.
  • Channel: Band III Channel 10 (vertically polarised)
  • Vision Carrier Frequency: Nominal 199.75 Mc/s. Actual 199.7372 Mc/s
  • Sound Carrier Frequency: Nominal 196.25 Mc/s. Actual 196.2605 Mc/s
  • Effective Radiated Power: Vision 200 kw maximum. Sound 50 kw maximum.
  • Power of Transmitters: Vision (peak white) 10 kW. Sound (carrier) 2½ kW
  • Heights above sea level: Site 850 ft. Mean aerial 1,250 ft.
  • Location: 1° 39′ 45″ W, 53° 36′ 45″ N.

Winter Hill (Channel 9) and Emley Moor (Channel 10)

Companies: Granada TV Network (weekdays), A.B.C. Television (weekends)

The first proposal for covering the great Northern area with its population of about thirteen million was to build a high-power transmitting station close to the existing BBC Band I station at Holme Moss on the high central rib of the Pennine Chain. Studies showed that this would have been technically attractive had it been possible at that time, without a very considerable delay for special development, to provide an effective radiated power of about 500 kW with a mast height of at least 1,000 ft. Even so, severe fading would undoubtedly have been experienced at the fringes of the service area, on the west coast at Liverpool and on the east coast at Hull.

These and other considerations led the Authority to conclude that the area would be served best by two transmitting stations, one on the western slopes of the Pennines to serve Lancashire, Cheshire and parts of Staffordshire, and another on the east side of the Pennines to serve Yorkshire. The Postmaster-General agreed to this proposal, which constituted the first of several departures from the general principle that Band III stations should be sited close to existing Band I stations. The quality of service which has been given to the North of England as a result of this departure has fully justified the decision. Winter Hill, the Lancashire station, was constructed on the summit of Rivington Moor, a fine site 1,450 feet above sea level. The aerial, which is carried on a self-supporting 450 ft. tower radiates 100 kW omnidirectionadly. Construction work began in September 1955 and the station went into programme service on 3rd May 1956.

Winter Hill
Winter Hill

The selection of the site for the Yorkshire station posed considerable problems largely because coverage of the main concentration of population within the hill-shadowed towns of the West Riding had to be combined with the provision of a service as far away as Kingston-upon-Hull some 5o miles away across the Yorkshire Plain.

Sixteen different sites were studied theoretically and tests, using a balloon transmitter, were made at four of them before Emley Moor, 850 feet above sea level on the eastern slopes of the Pennine Chain, was finally selected. Once again, because of the small area available, a 450 ft. tower was used to support the aerial, which has a semicircular power-radiation pattern delivering 200 kW e.r.p. in all easterly directions but only a few kilowatts backwards to the west into the natural barrier of the Pennines, thus preventing waste and an unnecessary overlap with the service area of the Winter Hill station. Emley Moor went into service on 3rd November 1956.